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Glossary of Terms

1G Refers to the first generation of telecommunications systems, i.e. analogue radio-telephone mobile systems.
2D Code Two dimensional rectangular bar code carrying data both in horizontal and vertical directions.
2G Refers to the second generation of telecommunications systems. This category also includes digital cellular mobile radio-telephone systems. Compared to 1G systems, this communication method is more advanced and  characterized mainly by greater system capacity, stronger resistance to monitoring and interference, possibility of international roaming, smaller and more economical terminals (handsets), wider offer of functions, better compatibility with ground and satellite systems, etc.
3G Refers to the third generation of telecommunications systems. These systems work in a 2 GHz broadband that will connect different present-day wireless access technologies into a single flexible and efficient infrastructure, able to offer a broad range of multimedia services in guaranteed quality.
4G Standard for the fourth-generation networks referred to as IMT – Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications – Advanced), complying with the requirements of the International Telecommunication Union.
Action Plan Set of planned projects and activities aimed at fulfilling the strategy objectives. The Action Plan may be part of a strategy (or its implementing document) or may present a separate document tying into such documents
Active Elements
(also acters)
Technical devices transmitting visual instructions or providing information to road traffic users, eventually affecting the pattern of traffic flow on a designated road section (flash signboards, variable message signs, information panels, variable traffic information signboards etc.).
Activity Actions or behavior of a particular part of the system.
Adhesion In order to be able to move on rails without skidding on their smooth surface, driving wheels need friction. The friction between wheel and rail results from the vehicle’s weight, the friction level affecting also the pulling power. Adhesion, too, is needed for making the vehicle stop without going into a skid.
Alert - C Structured language (protocol) for language independent coding of traffic events.
Architecture Conceptual design determining the structure, behavior and integration of the relevant system into the surrounding environment.
Attribute Characteristic that can be specified using the characteristics of a natural language.
Automated Relating to activities performed or devices working automatically but requiring human attendance.
Automatic Relating to activities performed without human interference.
Automatic Traffic Counter Transport detector used for automatic counting and classification of vehicles.
Autonomous (Robotic) Vehicle (in road traffic) A vehicle designed to carry out all critical security functions and to monitor road surface conditions throughout the travel time. This design expects the driver to merely set the travel destination and navigation data, but does not require him or her to be present to control the vehicle at all times during the journey. The same applies both to occupied and unoccupied vehicles.
Autonomous Operating Control Point (in rail traffic) Railway station, train loop, junction point (or main signal) where service is provided under “SŽDC D1”  Railway signaling and operating rules of the Railway Infrastructure Administration and which connects, at the (home) entry main signal position, to the RB-technology controlled section. Independent train station may simultaneously be used as the RB dispatcher’s workplace.
Balise (also track antenna or beacon) Device located at an information point used in point-to-point systems of data transmission which transmit data between the rail vehicle and the track.
Bottom-Up Planning method used for setting objectives and methods of accomplishing the objectives in a bottom-up way. First, relatively detailed partial objectives are set at the bottom levels of the organizational hierarchy, being gradually integrated at higher levels until general global objectives and global strategies are formed. A convergent approach.
Car2Car (also V2V) This technology is based on wireless communication between individual (road) vehicles (traffic participants) and is supposed to spot potential risks in traffic, i.e. to prevent accidents.
Transport Operator Person or organization arranging transport for third-party needs in return for consideration under terms and conditions published in advance
Cellular Network Mobile network. Area covered by a signal is divided into smaller parts or “cells”, covered by individual transmitters. Mobile telephone networks consist of roughly several thousands of cells.
Chip Miniature silicon plate with connected integrated circuits.
Clearing Distribution of sales among transport contractors in public passenger transport on a designated territory under specific, contract-based terms.
Train Dispatcher with lead responsibility for train movements supervisory operations Qualified employee authorized to organize railway traffic and to provide train movement control over an assigned D3 railway line (by simplified operating procedures).
Controlling Collecting, showing and analyzing accounting data, including but not limited to costs and revenues, as basis for decision-making.
D1  Railway Signaling and Operating Rules of the Railway Infrastructure Administration Basic internal regulation on railway operation by Railway Infrastructure Administration. The regulation contains national safety regulations within the meaning of EU legislation applicable to railway management and organization of rail transport on railways operated by Railway Infrastructure Administration. Individual provisions of the regulation are derived from the implementing regulation of the Ministry of Transport (“Railway Transport Regulations”), supplemented with further internal instructions applicable to railway management-related and rail transport organizing activities.
D3 Operating Control Point Railway station on a D3 railway line for providing train movements or shunting operations between D3 train stations which are unstaffed by a local train dispatcher.
Data Information or formalized characteristics of a certain process or effect in a form allowing processing by information technologies. Data have an exact form and a set structure.
Data Distribution Interface (DDR) Part of the editorial dispatching and controlling system of the National Traffic Information Centre. The interface allows, based on assigned access rights, traffic information and traffic data to be taken over from the central repository of the Integrated Traffic Information System of CR via standard web services.
Data Network Telecommunications environment for data transmission. Most data networks do not guarantee the time of the data delivery (due to applied communication protocols). Data networks support a number of interfaces and may have a number of protocol virtual layers of logical networks. Data networks are often interconnected or, on the contrary, particularly for safety reasons, separated in which case communication is possible through network crossings points via special systems (routers).
Database Set of data (information) from a specific area organized and stored in digital form.
Delegating Process of dividing activities (work), powers or responsibilities among organization units down to individual workers.
Detector Device used for detecting or identifying input data and information for intelligent transport systems. The measuring is done through detectors, or sensors.
Digital Manner of storing information (data, images, sounds) in a form readable or allowing further processing by a computer (in a numerical code).
Centralized Traffic Operative Management and Control Type of operative traffic management the main purpose of which is to control in an operative way the activities of all organization units involved in traffic in order to meet all tasks set for the accomplishment of the transport or carriage process.
Display Displaying device used for optic depiction of data. The display shows individual symbols in lines, the same as on a TV screen. The smallest displayed point is called a pixel.
Division of Labor Relation between individual elements of a community system, determining their respective shares in a collectively performed activity.
Door-to-Door (seamless mobility) Principle based on scheduling the travel route with transit nodes in order to economies on passenger travel time, possibly without delays resulting from waiting for a connecting service.
Signal Availability Percentage of time during which signal transmitted from external sources can be used for navigation purposes.
Rail Vehicle (also Rolling Stock) Transport unit dependant during its movement on a set part of the railway; save for vehicles used for technical attendance of production that are operated on specially assigned industrial tracks.
Methodical Management Indirect form of management where the managing component formulates binding instructions for subordinate components, however, without having the executive power to implement, check or, if necessary, impose sanctions for non-fulfillment of such instructions.
Railway Vehicle Transport unit which is carried and guided by railway tracks on a defined part of the railway, excluding vehicles providing technological support of a manufacturing process which are operated on industrial tracks reserved for such purpose.
Level Crossing Specifically marked crossing of the railway and road at the track level. Foot crossings in railway stations used by passengers or the railway operator or carrier staff are not considered level crossings.
Bill of Lading (Connaissement) Freight document certifying that a contract of carriage was made between the consignor and the carrier (ship operator). Used in sea transport. Each original sea bill of lading is also a negotiable security confirmed by the carrier and represents the goods indicated on the document. By means of the sea bill of lading, the carrier undertakes to hand out the transported goods at the given destination (port) to the consignee (owner of the bill of lading).
“Attention” (Sound)
A single long blow of a locomotive’s horn lasting at least two seconds or a single long whistle blow warning passengers of moving vehicles. This signal may be repeated.
“RB Operating Control Point number” Signal Board   On RB railway lines, this signal informs the engine driver of the RB train station number, which the driver enters into the RB terminal of the leading traction unit to allow for identification of the train’s position.
Train Reception (as internal telephone communication between stations (local train dispatchers) as the safe working procedures for the operation of the train movement control)
(Local) train dispatcher’s consent to the train’s arrival (entering into the (single-track line) track section towards the station controlled by him), given in a prescribed form.
Access Network
Network enabling the participants’ and users’ end stations to get connected to the backbone telecommunications network.
Accuracy Degree of conformity between measured location or speed at a given time and real location or speed.
Answer Back Signal
(as internal telephone communication between stations (local train dispatchers) as the safe working procedures for the operation of the train movement control)
Message (given by local train dispatcher or by track block operator) in a prescribed form passed to the rear train movement operating point informing that the whole train (train integrity check by watching the rear end marker or tail light) has vacated the block section (track section in rear released/clear)
Amendment Regulation in which modifications were made by means of subrogating, amending or changing certain provisions.
Approaching Section Defined section of a track which, when occupied by a train approaching to an train movement operating point or level crossing, initiates the activity of the relevant interlocking and signaling system.
Availability Percentage of time during which the system services are ready for use. The figure illustrates the system’s ability to provide useful service within a territory it is covering.
Axle Counter (or Wheelsets Counter) Device checking the vacancy of a track section by counting axles (wheelsets) at the borders of this section.
Axle Load Weight of one rail vehicle axle affecting the track. The weight limit on the Czech railway network is 22 tones.
Rail Traffic Movement Documentation A term collectively referring to station
 timetables, operating procedure rules, implementing acts, operating rules for connecting services and those for industrial tracks.
Bill of Lading (in railway Consignment Note) Freight document in domestic and international transport certifying that a contract of carriage was made between the consignor and the carrier. It accompanies the consignment from the moment it is accepted by the carrier until it is handed out to the consignee.  As a freight document, the bill of lading is a mere evidentiary document, not a security, and cannot be assigned.
Block Section Part of the open (railway) line between two adjoining train movement operating points or between a train movement operating point and the end of a line at a (cul-de-sac built) train-stop or loading point.
Excluded Track
A track temporarily out of order due to technical, operational or transport reasons.
Bypass (Train) Path Train route necessary for a train to run along a different track or into a different perimeter of the railway station other than scheduled by the train’s tabular timetable. Trains going on bypass routes run under their original numbers according to terms set out in Table 3 of the working timetable (travel times, set speed, prescribed brake mass percentage, etc.).
Bypass (Train) Path
Signal authorizing a train to run past the main signal displaying the “Stop” signal or giving no signal (with the lights out), or authorizing a train to run past a mechanical main signal emitting a doubtful signal.
Carriage of Persons and Goods The carrier transports a person who asked for carriage at an agreed price, accepting also their luggage (at the agreed price) and consignments submitted for carriage provided that the contract terms of carriage and the terms set out by special regulations were fulfilled.
Carriage Operating Sum of all activities of a carrier and a transport contractor or entities through which transport is procured.
Transportation Chain Intentional sequence of partial processes in transport, handling, packing and storing, necessary for transferring goods from the manufacturer to the consumer.
Switch to Telephone Communication Measure taken by (local) train dispatchers of adjoining train movement operating points to interlock moving trains by request, acceptance and advice of train arrival instead of using the line interlocking and signaling line block system.
Combined Transport Intermodal transport where most of the route is covered by railway, inland waterway or by sea while the initial or final (pre-carriage or on-carriage) sections of the journey are covered by road and, in general, are as short as possible.
Transmission, recording or reproduction of signals.
Compatibility General capacity of a device or system to work with another device or system without any modifications.
Aggregate of tasks, powers and responsibilities of a specific organization point.
Concept In the context of strategic management, a concept refers to a structured outline of the general course of a given field. Whereas a concept contains basic starting and orientation points, a strategy is more specific, defining particular targets and their values. A concept may be similar in nature to a policy, the main difference being, in particular, the time horizon of their implementation (as opposed to the concept’s mostly short- to mid-term implementation horizon, a policy is implemented on a medium to long-term basis).
Concession Official permit (license) to pursue a certain activity – e.g. to establish a transport link – under specific, predefined terms.
Congestion Queue of standing or slow-running vehicles causing delays to drivers or passengers.
Connecting Service, Connection A connecting service which, at the point of transfer, follows, within reasonable time intervals, the arrival of another means of transport (incl. an airplane).
Connecting Services Arranging two or more connecting links in the timetable (air schedule) with reasonable time intervals to allow transfers of passengers or reloading of luggage/goods.
Connection Particular transport connection between given destinations, determined by the timetable or using other time and place
specification, available within the framework of transport service provided in the given area.
Railway Interchange Point Connecting, parallel or crossing lines and relations resulting therefore.
Consignee Organization or entity (person) indicted in the bill of lading to whom the consignment is designated pursuant to the contract of carriage and to whom the carrier is obliged to hand over the consignment.
Consignment A thing or a set of things that the carrier took over from the sender for transportation, usually with a relevant transport document, which are to be transported to the recipient at the destination.
Consignment Note/Freight Document Document certifying that a contract of carriage (e.g. ticket, air ticket, bill of lading) was made between the carrier and the transport contractor (in freight transport) or between the carrier and the passenger (in passenger transport).
Consignor Organization or entity indicated in the bill of lading entering into a contract on the carriage of goods with the carrier.
Contact System Set of electrical wiring and all devices for their attachment and division, which is used to power the electric drive vehicle through a pantograph
Continuity Probability that the system’s functions (accuracy, availability) will be maintained over time. Expressed as the probability of function failures occurring over a given period of time.
Contract of Carriage Contract made between the carrier and an organization or entity for whose sake the carriage (transport) is implemented.
Control/Management Information process through which the controlling entity restricts the number and extent of possible ways of behavior of the controlled entity to achieve desired behavior.
Controlling procedure where a factually coordinating organization point exercises authority over other locations that are not functionally subordinate to it.
Council of the European Union Principal decision-making body of the European Union, representing its Member States. The EU Council does not meet in a fixed configuration, the meetings are attended by ministers responsible for the area under discussion and authorized to act on behalf of their governments.
Train Crossing Avoidance of two trains running in opposite directions, in two-way traffic using one track, at an operating post with appropriate track layout
Data Format Summary of information concerning the number and type of signs comprising individual data components
Data Sharing
The same data used by more applications.
Departing Section A defined section of a track whose occupancy will influence the activities of the relevant interlocking and signaling equipment during the run from one train movement operating point or from a level crossing.
Diesel Traction A traction unit’s drive using the main combustion engine to transform thermal energy into mechanical energy.
Domestic Line Using Part of Foreign Network Part of the railway passing through the territory of a foreign country and returning to the original territory that is used, based on agreement, in regular transport by more railway operators (including foreign operators). The current situation of these lines is not in line with the trend in European railways towards a Single European Railway Area.
Domestic Traffic Transiting over Foreign Territory Domestic transport between two destinations on the territory of the same country where part of the traffic route transits the territory of a foreign country
Doubtful Signal A signal that is unclear, questionable, uncertain or posted in breach of the SŽDC D1 rule.
Level Crossing Supervision Signal Fixed signal informing the train driver of the operating mode of the level crossing protection system.
Dynamic Road Traffic Control Intelligent transport system for traffic control on high-capacity roads (e.g. motorways) using gates with commanding or prohibiting variable message signs posted above or beside the road. The system also includes detectors monitoring characteristics of the traffic flow, such as traffic density, intensity or average speed.  According to the momentary state of conditions, the dynamic road traffic control system automatically gradually reduces speed or changes the organization of lanes to ensure as continuous and safe traffic flow as possible.
eCall 112 The pan-European eCall system is defined as an automatic or user-launched system for sending calls and relevant coordinates of a car accident to the 112 emergency call centre via the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), carrying a defined minimum set of data informing that an accident occurred that requires the intervention of rescue units. If possible, the system picks up voice communication with the vehicle. eCall is designed to send for rescue service, not to monitor the vehicle’s movements. Immediate warning of a serious accident and the knowledge of the exact location of the accident reduces time necessary for providing effective help
Describes the relation between outputs from business activities (generally meaning profit) and inputs (generally meaning invested or tied capital or, if relevant, costs).
EGNOS “European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System” is the European form of SBAS or Satellite Based Augmentation System which is used to augment the accuracy of GPS (including Galileo up from Version 3) and also allows the system to be used for applications critical in terms of safety (airplane or ship navigation).
Electric Traction Drive of a traction unit using transformation of electric power from an external source or an accumulator to kinetic energy or vice versa.
Electric Equipment Traction device in an electromobile.
Electric Power Capacity of the electric current to perform work.
Electrified Line Track fit for operation of rail traction units with dependant electric drive
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Capacity of an equipment, system or device to work correctly even in environments that are affected by other sources of electromagnetic signals (both natural and artificial) and, on the contrary, to shield the environment from the undesired impact of its own “electromagnetic activity”, i.e. not to emit signals interfering with other systems.
Electromobile Car driven by electric power. The power source may include accumulators, sun batteries or hydrogen and oxygen fuelled fuel cells.
Electronic Ticketing System (E-ticketing System) System enabling ticketing services for passenger in public passenger transport via electronic media.
Emergency Call Stations Communication equipment installed on road infrastructure allowing drivers to communicate with the Police of the CR in case of emergency or another traffic accident. Also helps to collect, evaluate and control technical equipment (active components and sensors).
Tail Light or End Marker Common designation for the signals “End of train” and “End of train part” (indicating the train integrity).
Engine Driver Collective term for the staff qualified to drive a rail transport vehicle (special traction vehicle) that provides the motive power regardless of the vehicle type
Entity Bearer and source of activity or learning in the basic category of relations.
European Space Agency (ESA) Intergovernmental organization for the development of space research and space technologies, based in Paris. At present, ESA counts 20 European countries. Joined by the Czech Republic in 2008.
European Train Control System (ETCS) Project designed for safeguarding and controlling rail transport. It enables transmitting information on permitted speed to the engine driver and monitors constantly whether the instructions are complied with by the engine driver.
External Costs Costs incurred by consumption of products, work and services provided by other entities.
International federaton of freight forwarding associations uniting national forwarding unions and related industrial branches (e.g. warehouses) (in French: Fédération Internationale des Associations de Transitaires et Assimilés
Floating Car Data Data collected from vehicles equipped with respective in-vehicle units forwarded to traffic information and controlling centers for assessment and defining of basic trends in road traffic development.
Forwarder An organization procuring and providing transportation and related tasks for a customer in an agreed scope and under specified conditions.
Forwarding Organization of the transport of goods or of other tasks related to the transport, in one’s own name and on someone else’s account.
Freight Transport Transport the fundamental aim of which is to carry goods (freight).
Galileo Galileo is a global navigation satellite system owned by the European Union which offers precise global positioning service. Galileo is interoperable with GPS, the US global navigation satellite system.
Geostationary Stationary in relation to the Earth surface. Geostationary satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of 36,000 km directly over the equator, as a result of which they seem stationary seen from the Earth.
Global System for Mobile communications – Railway (GSM-R) Based on GSM standard; however, it uses its own frequencies and offers several extended functions specific for rail transport. It is a radio system designed mainly for exchanging audio (voice) information and data between rail and mobile components.
Global Objective Specific (clear, matter-of-fact and comprehensible) description of a future state through which a set vision will be accomplished. A summary of the results and impacts of strategic objectives. Applies to the strategy as a whole. Similarly to a vision, a global objective should be met within a mid-term or long-term horizon (not necessarily immediately upon conclusion of the strategy implementation).
Gradient Profile of a Line Set of data relating to a section of the line, specifying the respective gradients and indicating the locations and radiuses of curves or the line speed and points of change in speed. The set also includes data concerning the stationing and location of operating posts, stops and signals.
Green Paper The purpose of a Green Paper is to provide the public with material gathering proposals in a selected area so as to spark off a debate. Green Papers are followed by White Papers, which already contain specific proposals for action in specific policy areas.
GS1 International organization specialized in drafting or proposing and implementing global standards, procedures and solutions to improve efficiency and transparency of the supply and demand relationship in global terms and across industrial branches.
GS1 System Global standard for identification, automatic data collection and communication of data between business partners
Handling Equipment / Transport Facility Equipment used for ensuring operation of transport means, unloading and loading, informing the transport operator staff, drivers, passengers, dispatchers and consignees, treatment and maintenance of transport means and traffic routes. Traffic routes as such, other transport structures and means of transport are not considered handling/transport equipment.
Service Track Tracks used for handling of vehicles (e.g. loading or unloading) or, as the case may be, other purpose tracks.
Hardware Technological equipment of a computer, individual structural components (motherboard with a microprocessor, power supply unit, graphic card, etc.)
Heavy Consignment/Load Loads whose weight exceeds the values given in the table of car load limits, or whose weight will cause that weight per axle or weight per running meter of the car are exceeded, even only on one section of the transportation route defined for the shipment
Homeostasis Mechanism of community systems facilitating target behavior and creation of inner balance which is a precondition for efficient accomplishment of selected targets.
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (H2020) is to be the biggest and most important programme to fund European science, research and innovation in the years 2014-2020. The H2020 programme continues in the research framework programmes declared by the EU since 1980, specifically the Seventh Framework
Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (2007-2013).
Impossible Communication Situation in which, due to malfunction of the telecommunication equipment (mutual communication of the staff attending adjacent operating posts is made impossible) and simultaneous breakdown of the interlocking and signaling equipment (if in place), it is impossible to ensure safe running of a train between adjacent operating posts.
Incident (also Accident) Event occurring in connection with the operation of a means of transport, resulting in death or damage to health, property or transported goods or threatening life, health and property or putting at risk the safe operation of buildings and facilities or, if applicable, gross violation of safety standards and/or continuity and regularity of traffic that might result in the above consequences.
Indicator Quantified target or rate measuring the level of a target’s accomplishment or an activity’s implementation. Indicators are used to monitor the process and result of implementation of a strategy (programme, project).
Industrial Track Track which serves the needs of the industrial track owner or other entrepreneur and runs into a national or regional line or into another industrial track.
Describes events in verbal or visual form, thus it cannot be expressed in an exact way:
1. Message, addvice or data concerning a specific part of objective reality that is necessary for the management process.
2. Meaning attributed to data (figures, numbers, signs, orders, instructions, commands, reports, etc.)
There are various types of information: up-to-date, reviewing, primary, continuous, controlling, external, internal, input, output, etc.
Information System Aggregate of means providing visual and acoustic information to drivers, road users, passengers and transport contractors (customers of a freight carrier).
Information Technology Technical aspect of information, separate from the contents of the message, information, data and their significance (issues involving also psychology, sociology and other fields). 
Inland ECDIS International data standard for the creation of inland navigation maps for water transport.
Inland Waterways Rivers and other areas where boats can navigate.
Integrated Traffic Information System of the CR (JSDI) Complex system environment collecting, processing, sharing, publishing and distributing (road) traffic information and traffic data primarily (but not exclusively) from public administration authorities, organizations and institutions as well as from other public and private entities pursuant to Resolution of the Government of CR No. 590 of 18 May 2005 “Draft implementation plan for the Integrated Traffic Information System of the CR” and in compliance with Act No. 361/2000 Coll., as amended. The Integrated Traffic Info. System is a joint project of the Ministry of Transport of the CR, the Ministry of Interior of the CR and the Road and Motorway Directorate.
Integrated Transport System Public Transport Service provided on a particular territory by several carriers subject to agreed contractual terms
Integration State of the process of enhancing a system’s organization, integrity, adaptability and homeostasis.
Integrity Capacity of a system to send early warnings to users if its signals cannot be applied for navigation purposes. Expressed by probability of incorrect information provided at a given period of time.
Intelligent Infrastructure Complex of ITS applications integrated into transport infrastructure based on which ITS services are provided to users. Intelligent transport infrastructure can be understood as transport infrastructure enabling, for instance, traffic and travel information to be conveyed in real time.
Intelligent Stop Public passenger transport stop equipped with information panels supplying real time travel information.
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Advanced applications designed to provide innovative services relating to various modes of transport and traffic control, without being intelligent themselves. ITS allow for improved awareness of various user groups, enabling a safer, better coordinated and more “intelligent” use of transport networks.
Intelligent Vehicle Vehicle equipped with a technical system allowing it to make decisions on the vehicle’s running without human intervention. The decisions are made at different intelligence levels and thus are capable of affecting the vehicle as a whole (autonomous vehicle) or individual systems of the vehicle (ABS, ESP, ASC and other systems).
Interface Mechanism working between systems, ensuring the systems’ interconnection and interaction.
Interlocked Route A track section which is supported by an interlocking and signaling equipment to comply with the conditions for safe run of railway vehicles. Interlocked route is bounded by a place from where a permission to proceed is valid (usually from a signal) and a place to which the permit is valid (usually the next signal). Interlocked routes are either train routes or shunting routes.
Interlocking and Signaling Equipment Equipment which helps to ensure safe movement of railway vehicles through surveillance and replacement of the operation performed by people, automation and increase of railway stations and tracks performance. The system is designed to control the traffic and technological processes in real time. Given that an error in the management of this process can lead to very serious consequences, i.e. to loss of life, injuries and considerable damage to property or the environment, this process (or some of its functions) is considered to be safety-critical.  For this reason, requirements are imposed both on the correct operation of the plant in defect-free state, and on the so-called fail-safe, too. Fail-safe means that no potential failure of the plant nor of its parts can result in a safety hazard.
Securing of Train Movement Set of operating tasks to secure the run of a train to or from a neighboring train movement operating point with track development, or to a defined place on an open track and back. Different categories and types of track interlocking and signaling equipment are used to secure the movement of trains. In addition to the track interlocking and signaling system, also train movement without interlocking and signaling devices or telephone communication is used.
Intermodal Transport
Several transport modes are used in
carriage of goods. Lorries, trailers, semitrailers, detachable add-ons or containers use roads for the initial and/or final sections of the journey whereas for the remaining part, they are shipped, with or without the tow (traction) vehicle, by railway, waterway or by sea. Only unified units are transported under this system, not undergoing any change in terms of weight or form during the carriage (e.g. ISO containers). As opposed to the multimodal transport system, a separate consignment note is issued for each transport mode (CMR for road transport, CIM for rail transport, etc.).
Internal Rate of Return The rate of interest at which the present value of cash income from investments is equal to capital expenditure on the investment.
Internet Worldwide interconnected data network generally operating using the TCP/IP protocols, equipped with information servers with a range of extensive services. In common sense, the Internet is primarily understood as the access to such information and services, regardless of their actual global location and manner of implementation of the data connection.
Internet of Things (IoT) Communications network of a broad range of “embedded” devices (devices equipped with software and hardware for a specific purpose, e.g. sensors, navigation or GPS modules) accessible via the Internet. In transport, the principle and the purpose of IoT is similar to the principle and the purpose of the V2X concept.
Interoperability Capacity of a product or system (whose interface is in full public domain) to communicate and work with other products or systems without any limitations in access or implementation.
Interoperability Components All basic structural parts, groups of structural parts, substructures or full structures of equipment included, or to be included in the future, into the subsystem of the European Railway System that are crucial, directly as well as indirectly, for the system’s interoperability. The concept of “component” includes both tangible as well as intangible property (e.g. software equipment).
In-vehicle (On-board) Unit Technical equipment installed in a vehicle, which enables the electronic exchange of data between the vehicle and the equipment on transport infrastructure in order to automatically identify the vehicle.
In-vehicle RB Terminal Aggregate of technical devices on the leading rail traction unit ensuring that the transmitted permissions are displayed to the engine driver. The terminal also passes information on the condition and location of the train to the RBS with respect to the engine driver’s operation of and interference with the vehicle’s control systems, and their compliance with the issued permissions.
ITS Application Intelligent transport system implemented and operated in real environment for the purpose of providing services to users of intelligent transport systems.
ITS Service Deployment of an ITS application through a correctly defined organizational and operational framework with the aim to improve safety, efficiency and user comfort or to facilitate or support operational activities related to carriage or travelling.
ITS Services Interconnection Capacity to ensure continuous connecting ITS services on transport networks across the EU.
ITS Users All users of ITS applications or services including drivers, passengers, vulnerable road users, carriers, managers and operators of the transport infrastructure, managers of vehicle fleets and integrated rescue services.
Legislation Creation of legal rules laid down in writing.
Level Crossing Protection System Interlocking and signaling equipment informing road users of a rail vehicle heading towards the level crossing and simultaneously informing the engine driver or relevant rail traffic service staff if the train is allowed to run at the permitted line speed before reaching the level crossing.
Line Aggregate of connecting services on a given route.
Line Closure Temporal interruption of train service or shunt on a track (section of the track), on an open track or in an operating post with track development; it can also be due to long-term impassability, in order to perform necessary repairs or other activities
Interlocking System Remote Control Supervisor An employee with the competence to organize and control train movements, except train dispatchers for centralized traffic control, who remotely controls an area or its part on a defined track section.
Line Speed Limit Speed allowed on a track (track section) with respect to its constructional layout and equipment.
(Railway) Line with Simplified Operating Procedures Railway line on which the service is provided under “SŽDC D3” rule for simplified operating procedures (D3 line) and which is limited by home (entry) signals of the station with lead responsibility for controlling train movements over an assigned dispatching section or by home (entry) signals of an adjacent station or by the buffer post in the cul-de-sac built “D3” station.
(Railway) Line A defined part of the railway designed for trains movement (or for shunting operations between train movement operating points), divided into line sections  between  train movement operating points with track development and into tracks in  train movement operating points on which the transport service is provided  under “SŽDC D1” Railway signaling and operating rules. A line can also be a substructure and permanent way including structures and fixed railway facilities between two designated points. It can be open, standard gauge, narrow gauge, broad gauge, with reversible tracks, with privileged transit traffic, electrified, rack railway line, frontier, main, secondary, controlled, high-speed.
Loading Gauge Defines the free space along the track enabling the safe passing of rail vehicles.
LTE Technology designed for high-speed Internet in mobile networks (abbreviation of Long Term Evolution).
M2M Mobile Data Telecommunications Service Mobile data telecommunications service of the Machine-2-Machine (M2M) type with limited quantity of transmitted data. This type of service is used to ensure specific, mostly technological communication between two and more devices where usually various weather-related data are transmitted, placing minimum demands on the quantity of the transmitted data.
Main Light Signal (Railway)
Fixed signal controlling a train’s ride or, if relevant, shunting operations between train movement operating points or shunting alone. Main signals include home (entry) signals (protecting the station or junction point and permitting the train’s arrival or shunting between train movement operating points to the station or junction point), intermediate interlocking signals  (outer home, inner home) signals (used for moving from one track to another - connecting one - within the circuit of the station or junction point), starting (exit) signals (used for departures from the station or junction point), section signals (used on open lines for trains arriving at the next track section), protection signals (protecting loading points, industrial track turnouts branching off the open line, level crossings with level crossing protection system, etc.) and temporary signals (note: signals temporarily left in operation).
Permissible Train Speed Permissible train speed is set by the composer of the train’s timetable and is laid down in the Working Timetable. The permissible speed must neither exceed the basic train speed pursuant to the transport regulations nor the line speed or construction speed of the traction vehicle set for the respective train
Means of Transport Technical means which, by moving, accomplish transfers of passengers and goods
Measure Instrument for implementing strategies by means of which individual objectives are fulfilled. The form of measures may vary: legislative changes, programmes or projects, investments and facilities, providing of information or training, and other.
Ministerial/Sector Strategy Ministerial strategy refers to a strategy processed at ministerial level (or at the level of another central public administration body) concerned with the relevant sector (sphere) of the given ministry, as stipulated by the Act on Competencies.
Model Demonstration maintaining, in terms of its purpose, the substantial characteristics of the original.
Multimodal Mobility Integration of mass passenger transport systems with other modes of transport (e.g. car sharing) with the aim to reduce individual car transport.
Multimodal Transport System This system does not deal with the carriage of unified units (i.e. units undergoing no changes during the carriage process) – these are used in the so-called intermodal transport system. A single bill of lading (FIATA) is issued for all modes of transport which covers the entire carriage section. The multimodal transport operator (e.g. forwarder) assumes responsibility for implementing the entire process of the combined transport, even if implemented by various means of transport. 
As for mass passenger transport systems designed to provide high-quality transport service within a given territory, the so-called Integrated Public Transport Systems are created that work under single carriage and tariff terms and endorse a single transport solution, including the coordination of timetables comprising several modes of public passenger transport operating at a given territory, e.g. underground (Metro), trams, trolleybuses, railways, urban and suburban bus service, cable car and ferries.
National Traffic Information and Management Centre (NDIC) Subsystem for review, authorization and verification of traffic information from diverse sources. The National Traffic Information Centre is operated by the Road and Motorway Directorate of the CR by force of the Czech Government’s resolution as part of its branch in Ostrava, Slovenská 7/1142, Ostrava-Přívoz. It is a round-the-clock operations centre.
Navigation Operating vessels on waterways.
Navigation Network Technical base of inland navigation consisting of a network of waterways and ports.
Nomadic Device Portable communications or information device that can be taken by the driver into the vehicle and used when driving or accomplishing transport, e.g. PDA or smartphone.
Non-interlocked Running Manner of securing running trains where the trains’ rides are organized by a single train dispatcher.
One Stop Shop 1) In rail freight transport a one stop shop is a point of contact allocating railway infrastructure capacity of international freight train paths. Either, a single stop is
established in each respective rail network to offer paths to international trains, able to arrange for an international train’s path from the starting point to its destination, regardless of the number of rail networks passed on the way, or a single point of contact is established for the entire corridor as part of the given railway freight corridor.
2) In public passenger transport, a one stop shop means providing comprehensive, specific area-related information through on-line or mobile applications, informing about timetables of public passenger transport, walking distances to stops, navigation to the point of destination, comparing the travelling conditions to individual car or cycle transport, or providing information on carriage and tariff terms
Open Line Line section delimited on each side either by a station, a D3 operating post, an RB operating post or the end of the line (end of track at, e.g., a stop or loading point). The border between the open line and a station is delimited by a home signal; in case of tracks with no home signal, the border is at the home signal level of the right track. The border between the open line and a D3 or RB operating post is the trapezoid sign board.
Open Line Track Track on an open line.
Train Movement Operating Control Point Railway point used to control train movements and shunting operations between train movement operating points. There are  train movement operating points with track development (railway station, passing loop, junction point, D3 train station, etc.) or without track development (train announcing point, track block operating post with block apparatus, automatic block section signal or section signal of the automatic line block system).
Operational Programme Operational programme is the fundamental strategic document of financial and technical nature focusing on a specific sphere (e.g. employment and social affairs) or a specific cohesion region (e.g. Moravian-Silesian region) that is compiled by the Member States of the EU. Operational programmes contain detailed descriptions of the objectives and priorities which the
particular Member States want to achieve in the given sphere over the given programming period. The Programmes contain descriptions of type activities for which funds may be allocated from EU Structural Funds. An Operational Programme also includes a list of those eligible for applying for such funds.
Operative Traffic Control Constant everyday activity carried out according to concept models of operative process management, respecting the immediate needs of and possibilities in the transport, carriage and service processes of traffic
Organized State State of a system different from chaos showing traits of a structure in the relations between the system’s components, according to certain criteria.
Out of Gauge Consignment exceeding the prescribed profile of the route at any point of its length the dimensions of which exceed the loading gauge of the relevant track in the defined travel path of the consignment.
Out-of-Gauge Load Exceptional consignment whose dimensions exceed prescribed loading gauge, transported separately under specified conditions
Overtaking of Trains Two trains bound for the same direction passing at a train movement operating point with a track development where the train arriving at the  train movement operating point with a track development later departs from (or passes through) the  train movement operating point and enters the next block section earlier than the first train. Also, two trains bound for the same direction passing at a double or multiple track line.
Part-Load Consignment Consignment of limited weight and dimensions which needs no separate rail wagon or separate road vehicle for being transported.
Passenger A person transported by a transport contractor in compliance with Carriage Regulations and the Tariff.
Passenger Transport Transport the fundamental aim of which is the carriage of persons and their luggage.
Permissible Braking Distance Distance determined for a particular section of the track, on which any train has to safely stop from the greatest speed authorized at the given section. Braking distance is
determined uniformly according to the technical parameters of the track and is reported in the route book containing the line characteristics.
Maximum Permitted Line Speed
Set speed restricted at a given trak section by the line speed limit, by a temporary restriction of the line speed limit (e.g. due to construction works on the track), by main signals or by a message informing the engine driver of the restricted speed limit.
In road transport the maximum permitted speed is restricted by Act No. 361/2000 Coll., on road traffic, as amended. On motorways, the speed limit is 130 km/h, on roads outside of municipalities 90 km/h, in municipalities 50 km/h, whereas in pedestrian and residential areas the speed limit is 20 km/h.
Person (people) with Reduced Mobility or Orientation People whose mobility when using a means of transport is reduced due to any physical disability (sensory or motoric, permanent or temporary), mental disorder or incapacity or due to any other handicap resulting from health or age and whose state requires that adequate attention is paid to their special needs and that services available to all passengers are adapted to meet their needs as well.
Personal Digital Assistant Small pocket computer.
Pilot Solution
(test operation)
Temporary version of a system showing basic features of the system to be implemented later on.
Platform On-board unit or other device enabling implementation, providing, use and integration of ITS applications and services.
Point Machine Device placed next to the points (diamond junctions, catch points) the main function of which is to reset, consequently fix and monitor the position of the movable components of the switch panel, crossing or catch point.
Portal A website enabling quick access to a great amount of information in one place. In order to be able to efficiently work with such amounts of information, each portal has a browser. Browser is a programme able to search through all of its records upon the users’ entering their requirements and to offer the corresponding result information.
Power Industry Field of human activity focusing on the extraction of primary energy sources and the transformation, transport, storage and use of energy.
Primary Data Basic data used as input reference data for messages or as basis for a system’s functioning and for computation of derived data.
Pseudolite Surface device simulating and emitting GPS signals. Used for making the GPS satellite network denser at places where 100% integrity and availability of the signal is crucial for navigation purposes (i.e. at airports when navigating airplanes before landing).
Public Carriage Transport provided to meet the general transport needs and available to everyone under uniformly applicable terms and conditions or under specifically agreed transport conditions.
Qualified Person Authorized to Organize Rail Transport and to Provide the Safe and Efficient Train and Shunting Movements Person assigned by the railway operator or carrier to carry out, as part of the railway or rail transport operating, activities having direct effect on safe  working procedures for the operation of the train and shunting movement control. The person must have a professional qualification as required by legal regulations and the railway operator’s or the carrier’s internal rules applying to activities carried out in railway, or rail transport, operating.
Queue Row of road vehicles in a traffic lane with no possibility of overtaking, affected by the first vehicle. In terms of mutual influencing, two vehicles are involved. In terms of evaluating congestions, a queue involves 20 and more vehicles moving at varying speed or alternatively going to a full stop.
Quick Response Code System for automated data collection. Matrix code arranged in a square consisting of black and white modules (square dots), which form images. One QR code – image – can contain great amounts of stored information.
Radio Data System - Traffic Message Channel (RDS-TMC) Service for drivers designed to provide traffic and travel information before and during travelling. Uses standard radio signal for data transmission. Among other, RDS is also used for acquiring information on the current radio station, name or text of the music currently on air. The same method can be applied in traffic data distribution. These include, among other, data concerning unexpected changes and accidents occurring on the transport network, congestions and exceeded capacity of the transport network. Traffic information may show on the radio display, however, it is more efficiently applied when used in connection with navigation systems. Individual traffic incidents have a standardized code designation, i.e. RDS-TMC works all across Europe regardless of the localization.
Radioblock (RB) Technical device enabling the providing of train movement in a defined area by means of granting permissions (movement authority) communicated to the rail traction vehicles via radio networks, transmitting data and subsequently checking the movement of rail traction vehicles based on the issued permits.
Rail Ensures guiding of rail vehicles and transfer of force generated by running trains onto rail supports. Rails are components of the track carrying the greatest strain, being in direct contact with the wheels of vehicles.
Rail Traction Unit Railway vehicle capable of generating tractive force on the wheel circuit designed for traction of trains, transport of passengers or goods or for moving other rolling stock, save where such motion is produced by a special tractive vehicle.
Rail Transport Management on RB lines through Dispatching Operating and management of rail transport by means of granting permissions (movement authority) to proceed to trains or shunting sets of cars, issued by Radio Block Centers based on advance reservation of the movement path by an RB dispatcher which workplace is located at the RBC and transmitted to the leading rail traction unit through a radio data network. Leading
tractive vehicles with no RB equipment receive permissions to proceed from the RB dispatcher in the verbal form (voice instructions).
Rail Transport Operating Activity carried out by the carrier to transport persons, animals or goods based on a legal relationship or to meet its own operational needs.
Rail Vehicle Vehicle whose movement is carried and guided by a railway track.
Rail-Road vehicle Means of transport equipped for moving on a railway and other designated traffic route.
Railway Traffic route used for transferring rail vehicles plus fixed equipment needed for such transfers, ensuring safety and continuity of rail transport. In terms of purpose and importance, railways differentiate between national and regional railways and industrial tracks.
Railway Node Important place in the railway network, transportation-wise, where several lines converge and which includes several stations and connecting lines.
Railway Network Set of individual railway lines in a territorial unit, mostly within a city, region, country, or a continent.
Railway Operability Technical condition of the railway enabling its safe and continuous operation. Railway operability is a basic precondition for the railway’s operating.
Railway Operating Activities safeguarding and maintaining the railway and organizing rail transport
Railway Station An train movement operating control point with track development allowing crossing (meeting) and overtaking of trains and having a defined scope of provided transport services for passengers or transport contractors (in freight transport).
Railway Substructure The construction of an earthwork structure of a railway (excavation, embankment, side-hill cut). This term further includes drainage facilities (ditches, subsurface drains), objects in the earthwork structure (walls, culverts, bridges, tunnels), platforms, ramps and other special-purpose facilities and equipment of lines and stations.
Railway Superstructure A superstructure receives the load stress from the rolling stock and guides the vehicles’ movement.
Railway System Interoperability Operational and technical interconnection of the European railway system.
RB Line Railway line on which the train service is provided under “SŽDC D4” rule for train movement operation control on lines equipped with Radio Block, with borders at entry signals of independent train stations or at the end of the track in the final RB cul-de-sac built train station.
RB Train Operating Control Point Train movement operating point with diverged tracks on the RB line, designed for train movement control and shunting operations between train movements operating points, unstaffed by a local train dispatcher, signalman or track block operator.
RB Dispatcher Qualified employee authorized to organize railway transport and to provide train and shunting movements on a designated line/lines equipped with a radio-block who operates the train control system equipment based on the radio-block switchboard technology.
RB Switchboard Set of the radio-block system supporting technical devices at the workplace of the RB dispatcher. RBS checks movement paths locked by the RB dispatcher and enables data or voice transmission of permissions (movement authority). RBS is connected to a system used for keeping and making records on rail traffic movement documentation.
Reduced Visibility Visibility where objects and persons are not clearly visible at a distance of no more than 100 m (e.g. from twilight to dawn, at dark, in snow or heavy rain, in a tunnel or in a secluded unlit area).
Regional (Secondary) Line Line of local importance used for public (passenger and goods) rail transport, integrated into the national or other regional lines.
Regulation Component of the control process, responding to identified deviations from the course of a controlled process as opposed to the initially set intentions (plans).
Repository Integrated, subject oriented, permanent and time-variable set of data organized to support management needs. Data are connected on the basis of specific rules to provide the end user with a general view of his or her area of interest.
Request (for permission for a train to proceed) (as internal telephone communication between stations (local train dispatchers) as the safe working procedures for the operation of the train movement control) A (local) train dispatcher’s request for permission for a train to proceed (entering into the (single line) track section towards the station controlled by the next local train dispatcher), having a prescribed form.
Reversible Track Line Railway lines where all track rails are equipped with an interlocking and signaling system for two-way traffic.
Track Bulletin Handbook containing construction relevant technical parameters of railway structures and structures built on the railway, along with technical and operational data having direct effect on the safety and continuity of rail transport.
Running Ahead of Schedule Agreed, ordered or achieved arrival, passage or departure of a train ahead of the relevant train’s timetable.
Sight Driving Manner of running a train using only the sight of the engine driver (employee positioned at the head of the shunted train or the shunting set of cars) so that the train or shunting set is able to stop in front of another vehicle endangering its driving and, if possible, to stop in front of a different obstacle, while the permitted line speed is not to be exceeded. In case of oncoming vehicles, the engine driver must be able to employ all means available to stop the train or shunting set of cars (fast brake, sand dispersion, dynamic brake, etc.).
Running Track Tracks used by arriving, passing or departing trains.
Train Movements May Only Continue with Restrictions Imposed Manner of running a train when the engine driver must repeatedly sound signal “Attention” starting at least 250m ahead of a level crossing until the train head (head of the shunting set of cars) passes the level crossing. The maximum permitted speed of the train reaching the point of 60m ahead of the level crossing until the train head (head of the shunting set of cars) passes the level crossing is 10km/h. In case of a sudden obstacle blocking the level crossing, the engine driver must be able to employ all means available to stop the train or shunting set of cars.
Interlocking and Signaling System Remote Control Add-on to railway interlocking and signaling system enabling the system’s control from another place via a transmission device.
Interlocking and Signaling Systems Part of transport equipment used to ensure the security and control automation and to improve the performance of transport.
Satellite A body orbiting another, more massive body. Man-made satellites are bodies weighing hundreds to thousands of kilograms put to the Earth’s orbit by a spacecraft. Satellites travel in different altitudes above the Earth’s surface, depending on type. In terms of purpose, we differentiate between telecom, navigation, remote Earth observation, meteorological, intelligence and scientific satellites.
Setting-Back Change of the direction of a train, shunted vehicle or special vehicle to the opposite direction.
Ship Operator Operator of (also inland) water transport for third party purposes.
Shunting Each intentionally made and organized movement of vehicles that is not the movement of a train, shunting operations between train movement operating points or a run to or from a blocked track.
Shunting Operations between Train Movements Operating Points Each intentionally made movement of rail vehicles to, from or on the open line that is not the run of a train, shunting or a run to or from a blocked track.
Fouling Point Marker Fixed signal used to define the limit between two tracks not to be exceeded by a vehicle in order to ensure safety of vehicles running along the adjacent tract.
Signal Visible or audible expression of an order, message or information by means of a set signal. Signals may be expressed using colors (red, green, yellow), motions (circling of a hand or other), sound intervals (short and long whistle/horn blow, etc.) or light intervals (calm, flashing light), images (“work site” – works on the track), numbers (speed indication signal) or letters (start and end of speed restriction, etc.).
Signal Technical device, tool or item used for signaling.
Guidance  Board for Missing Distant Signal Fixed invariable sign functioning as a permanent “Caution” signal. On D3 or RB lines, in specifically set cases, this sign notifies the engine driver about the following trapezoid board sign.
Signal Code Simple and clear expression of a signal by means of a certain shape, color, size or sound.
Signaling Passing of orders, messages or information by way of signals.
Signaling (Interlocking) System Failure Situation in which, due to a defect on a component of the interlocking and signaling system, the interlocking and signaling system fails to switch over to a state ensuring the safe operation of rail transport or preventing the occurrence of any rail transport risks.
Interlocking and Signaling Failure Change in at least one parameter of a part of the interlocking and signaling system that change the system’s features to an extent past the defined technical conditions.
Signaling System Set of defined signals, signal codes, signal terms and the ways of their use in the implementation and safeguarding of transport.
Simplified Train Operating Procedures A method for providing the train movements operating and shunting operations between train movement operating points on the lines with simplified train operating procedures  (D3 lines) with maximum speed of trains being 90 km/h.
Simulation Process of creating a real system using a model corresponding to real conditions, followed by conducting of experiments with the model to achieve better understanding of the examined system or to evaluate different alternatives of the system’s activity.
Smart City Community of people communicating and benefitting from flows of energy, material, services and financing in order to speed up sustainable economic development, stability and high quality of life. These flows and interactions become smart through strategic use of information and communication infrastructures and services in the process of transparent zoning and zoning procedures sensitive to social and economic needs of the society.
Smart phones General term for phones typical for their following characteristics: a relatively large display, easy-to-control keyboard or a touch screen, above-standard software for, among other, electronic mail, fax or Internet.
Software Computer programme equipment.
Special (Rail) Vehicle Rail vehicle built for the purpose of railway construction, maintenance, repair or upgrading, for checking the condition of the track or removing the consequences of extraordinary events/accidents.
Special Load Consignment containing goods the dimensions, weight or design of which might cause difficulties in transport with regard to the facility or operational capacity of the railway or which might present a risk for traffic safety.
Specific Objective Description of the outputs of specific measures and activities or, as the case may be, description of the desired target state. Each specific objective relates to the respective strategic objective. Specific objectives are accomplished by implementation of specific activities in course of the strategy implementation. Upon the accomplishment of all specific objectives, the strategy implementation is completed.
Specification Binding measure setting out criteria, procedures or any other relevant rules.
Supervision Signal for Trailable Turnouts Fixed signal advising of the correct position of the points, reset into normal position, alerting trains running in the trailing direction. This light signal informs the engine driver of the correct position of the switch with a resetting point operating mechanism that is reset into normal position.
Station Interlocking and Signaling Interlocking and signaling system used for safeguarding movement paths at train movement operating points with track development and at junction points.
Strategic Document Any document setting out a vision, objective or measure in the given sphere. Strategic documents include, without limitation, strategies, concepts, action plans or development plans.
Strategic Objective Description of the future state of individual partial areas of the relevant problem through which the global objective will be met. An aggregate of the results and impacts of individual specific objectives. Each strategic objective relates to a particular part of the strategy. A strategic objective is accomplished as soon as the strategy implementation reaches its end, or over a short or medium term.
Points Rail equipment enabling the passage of vehicles from one track to another without interrupting the ride. Part of the points equipped with switch blade is called a switch.
Trailable Turnouts These points are mainly used in railway stations on tracks with simplified train operating procedures as provided for in the “SŽDC D3” Rule, on industrial tracks, etc. Trailable turnouts mechanisms enable railway vehicles to run across a points from three directions without any assistance of the points operator or of the interlocking and signaling system. The fourth direction is operated in a traditional way by manual adjustment of the points mechanism.
Target Group In terms of the strategy set-up (its objectives and measures) a person, group of persons or an institution to be affected by the implementation of the strategy as planned. In terms of communications, a person, group of persons or an institution that can or should be informed (through various means, tools and at a different intensity) of the progress, outputs and results of strategy formation. The target group in terms of strategy set-up does not necessarily have to be the target group in terms of communications, and vice versa
Tariff Scale of prices for individual carriage acts performed as part of carriage services, and the terms and conditions of their use.
Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) Set technical requirements for the subsystems of the European rail system: infrastructure, energy, rolling stock, control-command and signaling, traffic and traffic management and telematics applications in passenger and freight transport, including the respective deployment procedures.
Telecommunications Set of methods, equipment and measures through which one participant may communicate to another participant (one or more) any information at any distance using any form of an appropriate telecommunication system.
Telecommunications Network (also Electronic Communications Networks) Functionally interconnected set of telecommunications equipment, which enables the transfer of information between end points of the network, or a set of radio equipment for the transmission of information, or their combination. Telecommunications network is a mobile network of an operator and telecommunications equipment is a mobile terminal. Telecommunications networks are built to provide services such as voice, television, and Internet access.
Telecommunication Equipment A set of equipment for processing and utilization of telecommunications signals which carry information in different forms.
Ticket Type of consignment note entitling passengers to transport.
Timetable Summary of information concerning services operated on a given line and connecting services running at given times and in given locations. Contains, at least, information on the departure and arrival times from/to respective stops and stations.
Top-Down Planning method which sets out objectives and ways to achieve them proceeding from top to bottom. First, global (framework) strategic objectives and manners to achieve them are defined. These are subsequently split into lower and lower levels of the organizational hierarchy and are further elaborated and specified. It is a concept of divergence, its disadvantage being that the planning method lacks feedback.
Track Two rails fixed on sleepers at a distance called the track gauge
Track Circuit Electric set comprising electric components of track circuit and the track circuit section used for identifying if the relevant line section is clear of railway vehicles or occupied. The status of a clear or occupied line is identified on the basis of a conductive connection of compact rail strings and the rail vehicle axle.
Track Interlocking and Signaling Interlocking and signaling equipment used to secure the movement of trains on a track between train movement operating points with track development.
Traction Set of devices and activities associated with propelling a vehicle in the form of exerting tractive force, of dynamic braking or of propulsion. Traction in railway transport: steam, diesel and electric.
Traffic Aggregate of activities accomplishing the transport process (vehicle movement).
Traffic Accident Emergency event involving damage to personal health or property in direct connection with the operation of a means of transport or a transport facility.
Traffic Control Centre Using sensor-collected data, the centre performs traffic control via end devices such as traffic controllers, variable messages signs, etc.
Traffic Data Data outputs mainly from ITS applications (including telematics applications) and traffic information systems, interpreted into comprehensible form, characterizing the traffic situation, and suitable for distribution to road users and traffic participants.
Traffic Detectors Technical devices collecting data on traffic flow and transport infrastructure (inductive loops, automatic traffic counters, video-detection systems, weather stations, etc.).
Traffic Dispatching Professional operating control or, if necessary, also checking of the transport process in a particular organization or on a particular territory from a single point.
Traffic Flow (Road Traffic) Sequence of all vehicles and pedestrians moving in one lane one after another or alongside each other in parallel lanes following the same traffic direction; the traffic flow may consist of several running or pedestrian flows.
Traffic Information Information on the traffic situation having direct or indirect impact on road traffic safety and continuity.
Traffic Information Centre Regional or national centre providing traffic information before or during travelling which relate to road traffic or the traffic route conditions. The Centre is attended by staff.
Traffic Information Device An active element which enables the exchange of information about traffic conditions on roads (traffic accidents, traffic obstructions, etc.) on a defined road section.
Traffic Intensity (Road Traffic) Number of vehicles running or pedestrians walking through the cross-section of a road at a given period of time.
Train A series of rail vehicles (also of special vehicles)  consisting of at least one driving and one towed vehicle, marked with defined indicators, having a train crew and running based on a timetable or instructions of a competent person controlling railway transport. A train can also consist of only one locomotive (special as well).
Train Dispatcher A term referring to all staff authorized to organize rail transport and provide safe and efficient train and shunting movements.
Train Dispatcher for Centralized Traffic Control An employee who provides safe and efficient train and shunting movements over an assigned small-scale dispatching district (one train movement operating point locally or more train movement operating points remotely).
Train Diversion Route Train route necessary for a train to run along a diversion route. Trains going on diversion routes run under their original numbers and according to the timetable set for this route.
Train (Cab) Interlocking and Signaling Interlocking and signaling equipment for securing reliable and safe control of the train. In this apparatus, some functions of the station, track, or level crossing signaling equipment may be part of the devices situated on the locomotive itself.  Part of the equipment on the locomotive or control vehicle is called the mobile part of the train protection system (train control) and is used to receive and evaluate information transmitted from the track. It also serves to periodically check the alertness of the person controlling the railway vehicle. This part can be operated independently without coordination with other interlocking and signaling equipment.
Train Timetable Specific time location of a train at a specific section of the train line.
Train Traffic Diagram Summary of measures and tools related to train traffic. Prepared and issued for a time-period set in line with international railway agreements and treaties. Introduced across the entire network at a single time. Train traffic diagram tools contain instructions for organizing rail transport and train running.
Telephone Communication (as the safe working procedure for the operation of the train movement control) Train movements are interlocked by telephone communication by a telephone advice or, in specified cases, by telephone request and acceptance.
Transport Intentional activity involving spatial transfer of persons and items via traffic routes, using means of transport, energy and labor force.
Transport Contractor Carrier’s customer in freight transport. Aggregate designation for consignor and consignee of the consignment. A customer of the carrier in passenger transport is referred to as passenger. This concept dates back to 1964 when a single term for all carrier customers was introduced. However, based on linguistic sense, the wider public regards a transport contractor as an active participant in the transport process rather than a user of the results of transport/carriage.
Transport Mode Transport characterized by a specific common feature (e.g. means of transport, traffic route, transport equipment) regardless of organizational and local integration.
Transport Branch Sphere of transport characterized by a specific organizational complex and management, using primarily a specific type of transport means.
Transport Network Aggregate of transport routes delimited by a territory.
Transport Process Aggregate of time-connected, factually relevant acts accomplishing and securing transport.
Forwarding Process Sum of subsequent, factually and time-related acts through which carriage is implemented and safeguarded.
Transport Route Setting the route in terms of direction, altitude or even position, if necessary.
Transport System Aggregate of interconnected elements (means of transport and transport equipment/facilities, transport infrastructure and traffic organization) on a designated territory (e.g. region, country or continent) where transport process is taking place (carriage of passengers, goods and information.
Transport Terminal Area where consignments are loaded, unloaded or reloaded or the mode of transport is changed. In individual car transport, a terminal may be, for instance, a car park, in public passenger transport a bus/coach or train station, in air transport terminals are airports and in water transport they are ports. Multi-mode terminals are used for several modes of transport at a time.
Transportation/Carriage Transferring of passengers and goods as a result of transport.
Stop Board for Indicating the Stopping Point at a Control Point This trapezoid board is posted on railway lines with simplified train operating procedures (on stations without home (entry) signals) at a point where given trains are to stop before getting permission to move to the station.
Travel Information Centre The Centre provides information on timetables and suggests transport routes, including multi-modal transport.
(Rail) Movement Path Common designation for train and shunting paths.
Travel Voucher General designation for tickets, passes or other documents (seat reservation vouchers, sleeping-car or sleeping couchette vouchers) allowing passengers, their luggage and dogs to be transported according to the Tariff.
Validation Legalization, ratification, authorization, entry into force.
Variable Message Sign Active elements enabling the passing of instructions (e.g. no entry, speed restriction) to all drivers within a given section of transport infrastructure.
Vision A description of the desired future state, which we want to achieve through implementation of the strategy. It is the very impact of the achieved global objective.  It refers to the strategy as a whole. The vision should be fulfilled in the mid-term or long-term horizon (which may not be immediately after the completion of the strategy implementation).
Vulnerable Road Users Non-motorized road users such as pedestrians and cyclists, as well as motor-cyclists and persons with disabilities or reduced mobility, orientation and communication.
Wagon Load Load which is transported on at least one independent vehicle; a wagon load is also a wagon of transport contractors (private) and a railway vehicle running on its own wheels being transported with a bill of lading.
Distant signal Fixed signal located at a permissible brake distance before the next main signal. Used to warn the engine driver of the oncoming main signal.
Website Internet site containing information (text, images, animations, voice) as well as links which easily refer the user from one page to another. Every website is hosted on a server and has its own unique URL (Uniform Resource Locator) address. Websites can be displayed using browsers (e.g. Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer).
White Paper Report or hand-book designed to help resolve a particular issue and to facilitate decision-making. Contrary to Green Papers, White Papers contain specific proposals for adopting measures in specific policy areas. White Papers reflect upon results of public consultations on the proposals and outline possible legislative measures. White Papers are submitted for debate to political representatives (the College of Commissioners of the EC).
WiFi Wireless networking technology that allows you to connect to the Internet in the vicinity of a required transmitter / access point
Wireless application protocol (WAP) Protocol for wireless communication, designed to provide access to Internet services through various wireless communication network solutions. WAP is primarily designed for mobile devices.
Infrastructure for Spatial Information Set of principles, knowledge, institutional measures, technologies, data and human resources to enable sharing and effective use of spatial information and services.
Interoperability A capability of systems to provide services to each other and to work effectively.
Data Set Identifiable data put together.
Guaranteed Data Spatial data with the corresponding quality certificate; public authorities conduct transparent decision-making processes with subsequent legal responsibility with respect to this data.
Metadata Data which describe the structures and content of spatial data sets, spatial services, and other components of the IS. They enable and simplify their search, sorting and use.
Spatial Data Data which cannot lack information on the geographic location usually expressed as coordinates and topology.
Spatial Information Information obtained by interpreting spatial data and the relationships between them.
Reference Interface A set of legal, technical, organizational and other measures forming a unified integration environment of public administration information systems (PAIS), which provides a high-quality set of common services including the exchange of information (requested in accordance with law) between the information systems of public administration bodies and other entities, including systems abroad
Thematic Spatial Data Spatial data describing / representing a particular type / group of natural or socioeconomic phenomena (e.g. traffic data, demographic data, nature protection data).
Fundamental Spatial Data Spatial data with basic, universally usable content, collected and managed under unified rules. They are created in the public interest and serve as reference data for decision-making processes of the public administration, for example, as a source for the state map series, for other thematic spatial data, etc.
Spatial Reference System A set of rules that define unambiguous association of locations to spatial data and to the information from the real world.